"Considering the Waterfront Renovation of City Core of Tokyo Vol.3"

Date: 11, Sep. 2006 (Mon) 18:00-21:00
Place: Meeting Room B, Boissonade Tower 25F, Ichigaya Campus, Hosei University

"Revival of Tokyo Bay -Revitalization of Marine Recreation"
Yoichi Yonemura (Regional Exchange Center, Authorized NPO)
 Since the Edo Period, people lived along the ocean or waterfront; however during the period of high economic growth, urban development was promoted especially along the coastal areas, resulting to the loss of waterfront as living spaces.
 Tokyo Bay is naturally one of the representative ports of the nation, though it has suffered from various problems arisen from the fragile way of use of the ocean, poor planning, and out of date law systems and traditions regarding the ocean. The overall view of ports and ocean could not be presented only by local maintenance plans. It is strange that whole planning guideline for whole ports and the ocean were not prepared.
 Current laws and systems do not consider leisure activities including surfing and pleasure boats, as well as measures to control coastal areas. The utilization of ocean and waterfront has been more and more expanded, while the measures for control could not catch up the situation.
 The potential of Tokyo Bay with surrounding 30 million inhabitants, retaining its history, culture, and natural environment, is rare throughout the world. To utilize these characteristics, the establishment of rules including laws corresponding to the current way of use and social structure will be required. However, social habit is more important than laws; the way of use of the ocean focusing on recreation will surely compose major parts for new ocean businesses.
 Our center proposes the construction of ocean station and canal station. Based on the experiences from pilot program of roadside station, the exchange base of waterfront was conceived. By linking each other, these stations will serve as the storage place in a time of disaster as well as service facilities (boatslip). We have already got cooperation from retail stores, superstores, fitness clubs, etc.
 Other pilot programs were carried out in other areas. From 1980 to 1990, the conflicts concerning the way of use of seacoast were developed between tourists and inhabitants. Instead of the establishment of rules, pilot program "surf '90" was implemented. The program proposed the construction of cafes, boardwalk, shuttle ships, log houses, etc. The program succeeded to attract 6.5 million people along the seaside, and to avoid the problems caused by motorcycle gangs; as a result, 546 social issues can be addressed by the program. Along with the above, other achievements included setting up various organizations corresponding to preparation of rules for waterfront usage, waste disposal system, preparation of integral measures over port areas, lifesaving, etc.


"Planning, Improvement and Utilization of Oceanfront Spaces"
Utaka Miyaji (Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA))
 If you consider the urban development from the land, buildings would be constructed as those in Shiodome. If you see the waterfront line from the ocean, the resulting guideline will cover open spaces, and public access improvement, which will establish the awareness to the quality of oceanfront spaces among port and seashore administrators.
 The Ports and Harbours Bureau of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, has addressed redevelopment of wharves focused on activity, history, festivity and living. By high-standardization of container terminals, Honmoku district of Port of Yohohama, and Ohi district of Tokyo Bay, are trying to regain international competitiveness. One of the examples of bustling spaces, is Garden Wharf of Port of Nagoya. The idle port is renovated for aquarium, restaurants, shops, theme park, and green space. At the same time passage boat terminals was improved, and South Pole research ship is utilized as the symbol of the region. In Tamamo district of Port of Takamatsu, commercial center was improved including the ruin of old railroad. From the viewpoint of living, the warehouses of municipal operation in central wharf of Port of Muroran, are used as event site such as jazz concert by citizens' groups; in Minato Honko district of Komatsudera in Tokushima, idle ferry terminal is used as regional exchange base by citizens' groups, where regular free markets are held and visitors' berth of pleasure boats are developed. From the historical viewpoint, Yokohama Red Brick Warehouse was developed through patient efforts since 1980's. Hinode district of Port of Shimizu, was renovated using cranes for timber and became a symbol of the region.
 The maintenance works have been often carried out in different timings for public facilities and private facilities such as dykes and green spaces. In such cases, private sectors often develop public facilities to return project fees to operating body. One of the recent examples of bustling space project is "Minato Oasis" system, which aims vitalization of the region through various public supports for sustainable projects using port resources based on inhabitants' participation. Other movements include Sato-hama development.
 Various guidelines were prepared based on examination of issues through events on shores, ports, water areas and land areas, including general development guideline for facilities on waterfront line, guideline for port landscape, guideline for coastal landscape, etc. Although a guideline is not a prerequisite for a project, it can be considered as a precious knowledge to resolve various issues. The guidelines also play a major role for proposals recently made by administrations, to give project incentives for urban renovation and special districts. For the projects regarding the ocean, viewpoint from wide areas and networks are to be well examined. Regarding the technology development, water quality purification and breakwater which functions only at the emergency such as in Nagasaki Holland Village should be examined. It will be required to ensure the safety and convenience both at the emergency and in usual conditions.

"Waterfront of Tokyo Seen from the Ocean-Its History and Future "
Isao Takamatsu (Yachiyo Engineering Co., Ltd., Former Manager of Tourism Department, Tokyo Metropolitan Government)
 I was born, grown up in Hacyobori, and 8th generation. When I was an elementary student, the streets were not completely paved and the area retained the characteristics of Shitamachi (low city).
 At the end of the Edo period, there were the following evaluation criteria: flowers, rivers, arrays, chic(粋), gorgeous(華), and association(連). Firstly, good town cherished flowers. Secondly, rivers and moats had to be cleaned. Because water flew weekly, wigglers were likely to be generated and people needed to be in Kaya (mosquito netto) to sleep well. As for arrays, the street in front of a tenement was a space with watering where inhabitants played Japanese chess on a small bench. The cleanness of such arrays was the criteria for a good town. The chic meant that whole town seemed to be stylish, where people had comfortable life rather than busily worked. The gorgeousness included various characteristics of the town; e.g., sound of shamisen, or crying of a child, etc. Association meant that people got on well. In good town, inhabitants were cooperative to work together such as for a festival.
 After the Great Kanto Earthquake, the functions of disaster prevention of ports were reexamined. As a result, wharf of Hinode was built in 1925. Then, wharves of Takeshiba and Shibaura were completed. After the opening of Tokyo Bay in 1941, Harumi and Toyosu were reclaimed, where world exposition was planned to be invited along with the Olympic games in the 15th year of Showa. However, the plan was not realized because of the outbreak of war. After the World War II, Tokyo was in high economic growth period because of Tokyo Olympics, resulting to be a city of large-scale production and consumption instead of recycle society of Edo.
 For waterfront development, we have to reconsider the utilization of reclaimed land from the viewpoint of effective use of lands for redevelopment relocation. One of the examples of such land is in Kiba. There is another plan to build a park with 90ha, referred to as "sea forest". In addition, the renovation of Tennozu, Shinagawa, and wharf of Hinode (which is said to be a waterfront resource to be developed), and redevelopment of Shinkiba, Wakasu and old wharf will be important for generating new waterfront city, Tokyo.
 On the other hand, there are various issues and problems. It will be needed to strengthen security by measures against high tide and tide wall, as well as to consider environment and landscape so that waterfront can be close to people. Furthermore, waterfront control is to be regulated in the form of utilization rules, and public transportation measures are to be improved particularly fragile in oceanfront areas. To handle such issues, we are proceeding in super dyke development, and functional and regional design appropriate for environment creation city through advices from specialists and acceptance of local citizens. From the Edo period, with values of flowers, rivers, arrays, chic, gorgeous, and association, passed off only 150 years. I think the construction of grand design and modest intervention will be necessary to cover from the framework (urban construction) to living (way of life).



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