"Revival of Tokyo Bay -Revitalization
of Marine Recreation"
Yoichi Yonemura (Regional Exchange Center, Authorized NPO)
Since the Edo Period, people lived along the ocean or waterfront;
however during the period of high economic growth, urban development
was promoted especially along the coastal areas, resulting to the loss
of waterfront as living spaces.
Tokyo Bay is naturally one of the representative ports of the nation,
though it has suffered from various problems arisen from the fragile
way of use of the ocean, poor planning, and out of date law systems
and traditions regarding the ocean. The overall view of ports and ocean
could not be presented only by local maintenance plans. It is strange
that whole planning guideline for whole ports and the ocean were not
Current laws and systems do not consider leisure activities including
surfing and pleasure boats, as well as measures to control coastal
areas. The utilization of ocean and waterfront has been more and more
expanded, while the measures for control could not catch up the situation.
The potential of Tokyo Bay with surrounding 30 million inhabitants,
retaining its history, culture, and natural environment, is rare throughout
the world. To utilize these characteristics, the establishment of rules
including laws corresponding to the current way of use and social structure
will be required. However, social habit is more important than laws;
the way of use of the ocean focusing on recreation will surely compose
major parts for new ocean businesses.
Our center proposes the construction of ocean station and canal station.
Based on the experiences from pilot program of roadside station, the
exchange base of waterfront was conceived. By linking each other, these
stations will serve as the storage place in a time of disaster as well
as service facilities (boatslip). We have already got cooperation from
retail stores, superstores, fitness clubs, etc.
Other pilot programs were carried out in other areas. From 1980 to
1990, the conflicts concerning the way of use of seacoast were developed
between tourists and inhabitants. Instead of the establishment of rules,
pilot program "surf '90" was implemented. The program proposed
the construction of cafes, boardwalk, shuttle ships, log houses, etc.
The program succeeded to attract 6.5 million people along the seaside,
and to avoid the problems caused by motorcycle gangs; as a result,
546 social issues can be addressed by the program. Along with the above,
other achievements included setting up various organizations corresponding
to preparation of rules for waterfront usage, waste disposal system,
preparation of integral measures over port areas, lifesaving, etc.
"Planning, Improvement and Utilization
of Oceanfront Spaces"
Utaka Miyaji (Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA))
If you consider the urban development from the land, buildings would
be constructed as those in Shiodome. If you see the waterfront line
from the ocean, the resulting guideline will cover open spaces, and
public access improvement, which will establish the awareness to the
quality of oceanfront spaces among port and seashore administrators.
The Ports and Harbours Bureau of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure
and Transport, has addressed redevelopment of wharves focused on activity,
history, festivity and living. By high-standardization of container
terminals, Honmoku district of Port of Yohohama, and Ohi district of
Tokyo Bay, are trying to regain international competitiveness. One
of the examples of bustling spaces, is Garden Wharf of Port of Nagoya.
The idle port is renovated for aquarium, restaurants, shops, theme
park, and green space. At the same time passage boat terminals was
improved, and South Pole research ship is utilized as the symbol of
the region. In Tamamo district of Port of Takamatsu, commercial center
was improved including the ruin of old railroad. From the viewpoint
of living, the warehouses of municipal operation in central wharf of
Port of Muroran, are used as event site such as jazz concert by citizens'
groups; in Minato Honko district of Komatsudera in Tokushima, idle
ferry terminal is used as regional exchange base by citizens' groups,
where regular free markets are held and visitors' berth of pleasure
boats are developed. From the historical viewpoint, Yokohama Red Brick
Warehouse was developed through patient efforts since 1980's. Hinode
district of Port of Shimizu, was renovated using cranes for timber
and became a symbol of the region.
The maintenance works have been often carried out in different timings
for public facilities and private facilities such as dykes and green
spaces. In such cases, private sectors often develop public facilities
to return project fees to operating body. One of the recent examples
of bustling space project is "Minato Oasis" system, which
aims vitalization of the region through various public supports for
sustainable projects using port resources based on inhabitants' participation.
Other movements include Sato-hama development.
Various guidelines were prepared based on examination of issues through
events on shores, ports, water areas and land areas, including general
development guideline for facilities on waterfront line, guideline
for port landscape, guideline for coastal landscape, etc. Although
a guideline is not a prerequisite for a project, it can be considered
as a precious knowledge to resolve various issues. The guidelines also
play a major role for proposals recently made by administrations, to
give project incentives for urban renovation and special districts. For
the projects regarding the ocean, viewpoint from wide areas and networks
are to be well examined. Regarding the technology development, water
quality purification and breakwater which functions only at the emergency
such as in Nagasaki Holland Village should be examined. It will be
required to ensure the safety and convenience both at the emergency
and in usual conditions.
"Waterfront of Tokyo Seen from the Ocean-Its
History and Future "
Isao Takamatsu (Yachiyo Engineering Co., Ltd., Former Manager of Tourism
Department, Tokyo Metropolitan Government)
I was born, grown up in Hacyobori, and 8th generation. When I was an
elementary student, the streets were not completely paved and the area
retained the characteristics of Shitamachi (low city).
At the end of the Edo period, there were the following evaluation criteria:
flowers, rivers, arrays, chic(粋), gorgeous(華), and association(連). Firstly,
good town cherished flowers. Secondly, rivers and moats had to be cleaned.
Because water flew weekly, wigglers were likely to be generated and people
needed to be in Kaya (mosquito netto) to sleep well. As for arrays, the
street in front of a tenement was a space with watering where inhabitants
played Japanese chess on a small bench. The cleanness of such arrays
was the criteria for a good town. The chic meant that whole town seemed
to be stylish, where people had comfortable life rather than busily worked.
The gorgeousness included various characteristics of the town; e.g.,
sound of shamisen, or crying of a child, etc. Association meant that
people got on well. In good town, inhabitants were cooperative to work
together such as for a festival.
After the Great Kanto Earthquake, the functions of disaster prevention
of ports were reexamined. As a result, wharf of Hinode was built in 1925.
Then, wharves of Takeshiba and Shibaura were completed. After the opening
of Tokyo Bay in 1941, Harumi and Toyosu were reclaimed, where world exposition
was planned to be invited along with the Olympic games in the 15th year
of Showa. However, the plan was not realized because of the outbreak
of war. After the World War II, Tokyo was in high economic growth period
because of Tokyo Olympics, resulting to be a city of large-scale production
and consumption instead of recycle society of Edo.
For waterfront development, we have to reconsider the utilization of
reclaimed land from the viewpoint of effective use of lands for redevelopment
relocation. One of the examples of such land is in Kiba. There is another
plan to build a park with 90ha, referred to as "sea forest".
In addition, the renovation of Tennozu, Shinagawa, and wharf of Hinode
(which is said to be a waterfront resource to be developed), and redevelopment
of Shinkiba, Wakasu and old wharf will be important for generating new
waterfront city, Tokyo.
On the other hand, there are various issues and problems. It will be
needed to strengthen security by measures against high tide and tide
wall, as well as to consider environment and landscape so that waterfront
can be close to people. Furthermore, waterfront control is to be regulated
in the form of utilization rules, and public transportation measures
are to be improved particularly fragile in oceanfront areas. To handle
such issues, we are proceeding in super dyke development, and functional
and regional design appropriate for environment creation city through
advices from specialists and acceptance of local citizens. From the Edo
period, with values of flowers, rivers, arrays, chic, gorgeous, and association,
passed off only 150 years. I think the construction of grand design and
modest intervention will be necessary to cover from the framework (urban
construction) to living (way of life).