the Waterfront Renovation of City Core of Tokyo Vol.1"
Date： 31, May. 2006 (Wed) 18:30-21:00
Place: Meeting Room B, Boissonade Tower 25F, Ichigaya Campus, Hosei University
"Ship Transportation within a City"
Takeo Koyama (Professor emeritus at Tokyo University, Ship Engineering)
Fast ships utilization for the access to urban transportation has
a lot of possibilities; e.g., proposals are made for the accesses from
Kobe to Kansai International Airport, from Ochanomizu to Haneda International
Ship transportation is well functioned in the cities of overseas;
e.g., San Rafael (San Pablo Bay) in San Francisco, from Boston Airport
to downtown areas, from John F. Kennedy International Airport to Manhattan,
from Battery Park to Staten Island (about 10km, opened in 1819), commuter
of Themes River in London (Docklands) where ships navigate far upstream.
One of the representative examples of inland water transportation
of Europe is Venice; large buildings have entrance from both canals
and streets; gondolas and water taxies provide direct access to the
airport. The development of the canal through the Elbe and Danube rivers
to the Black Sea is in progress. The Kiel Canal at the mouth of the
Elbe connects to the Baltic Sea. The locks for ascending of ships are
characteristic landscape in European cities; Neckar River (from Heidelberg
to Burgenstra_e) has ship-lifts; in Holland, I saw a canal was running
over expressway around the Schiphol Airport (8m below sea level) and
a drawbridge blocks the road. On the other hand, road transportation
measures such as tipper lorry have not been well developed.
In Japan of the Edo period, water transportation was flourished; westward
ship (Kitamaebune) linking Hokkaido to Osaka, Bensaisen in Tsuruga-Kyoto
(commonly referred to as Sengokusen), regular ship transportation from
Kawagoe to Edo, etc. The canal networks of Edo and Osaka served a role
as present expressways.
Today it seems to be rare to view a landscape from a ship; we can
enjoy such experience in Yanagawa, Suigo, Matsushima, Tsukumo Island,
Oki Island, Abutoseto, etc. I recommend to see the land as near as
possible from a shore.
Even in the present city where land transportation is fully developed,
ship served major roles in physical distribution; e.g., 8 hundred million
importation and 1 hundred million exportation. I think the publicity
of marine industry (marine transportation and ship building industries
in narrowly speaking) is important, because Japan could not be kept
developed without international cooperation.
"Renovation of the Kanda River and the
Nihonbashi River for Tourism-Oriented Nation"
Yuji Miura (Dean Emeritus of Nihon University, Director of Urban Environment
Research Activities (authorized NPO), Head Director of Chiba Division
of Coastal Environment Creation Institution (authorized NPO), Head
Director of Kokusai Ginou Shinko Zaidan (KGS))
It is of the utmost important to clean water to renovate the Kanda
River and the Nihonbashi River. Because rainwater and domestic wastewater
run through the rivers together, heavy rains push sewage into outer
moats including the Ushigome Moat. Although the changeover from confluent
style to diversion style will be expensive, I wish to start with the
Kanda River and the Nihonbashi River. Meanwhile, we can start to utilize
groundwater and surrounding roof waters to merge into moats and rivers.
In the next place, as for the closeness to water, if an underground
river (spring-fed pond) of Kannana Street will control the flood, the
tide wall of the Kanda River can be lowered by building a lock at the
contact point of the Kanda River and the Edo River where the Nihonbashi
River flows into the Sumida River. The distance between ground level
and the water level will be shortened and canoes, boats, pleasure ships
will be in service in the Kanda River and the Nihonbashi River. For
the hinterland of the quays, surface development will be needed to
realize updated river banks. As foot paths of canals of England, board
walks over rivers will be suited for us to achieve the closeness to
At the time of an earthquake occurrence, water systems and hydrant
stop. From the viewpoint of fire control, it is important to sail disaster
prevention ships; the opinion to open the Kachidoki Bridge is partly
based on the consideration of such element. Dotted rivers and narrow
canals will also be important because they had boat slips for disaster
prevention. For example, although the Tokiwa Bridge provides the boatslip
to respond to the tide level of 2m, at the time of low or high water,
it will be difficult to use it because of the relation with water level;
in addition, the entrance is always locked. Nobody will be able to
come and help when a disaster occurs.
In the last place, I will refer to Nihonbashi. The removal of expressway
has been recently discussed, for which I am both for and against. I
think the expressway should not be immediately or partly removed; it
should be examined from the multiple points of view including the change
of traffic volume along with the development of metropolitan beltway,
useful life of bridge piers of expressway, waterfront renovation, etc.