History Project 1st Research Meeting
Renovation of Cheonggyecheon (清渓川) in Seoul
the relocation of the capital in 1397, the Cheonggyecheon stream
flowing east-west in the central city, had served as a symbolic boundary
between upper part and
lower part of the city. Based on geomancy, court, palace and housing
area of high-class
of the north, and houses of middle or low-level bureaucrats and commoners
of the south
had been geographically, politically, socially and culturally divided.
During the period
between the capital relocation and 1902, the kings had lead water
control through bank
July 2002, Lee Myung-bak (李明博) won an election for the mayor
of Seoul, making
a commitment to restore the Cheonggyecheon. Based on the approval
to this policy by
80% of the citizens in Seoul, he launched major engineering works
on demolition of
covering road and expressway, and the river's restoration. This
project has its four
advantages. Firstly, this project will provide drastic resolution
to safety problems,
involving the decrepit structures of covering road and expressway.
Secondly, it will
offer an amusement waterfront space for citizens, by remaking huge
drains into urban
natural rivers. Thirdly, history and cultures of Seoul will be
revitalized by the
restoration of Gyangtonggyo (広通橋) and Sypyogyo (水標橋), as well as
the revival of
various cultural events. Fourthly, alteration of industrial structure
in the area around
Cheonggyecheon --lagging behind in the development since the Korean
allow economic revitalization in the city center. The restoration
work was preceded by
expansion of public circulation including detours and bus networks,
aiming to alleviate
traffic on the existing covering road and expressway. In addition,
services like conomic
Along with Cheonggyecheon, Gyangtonggyo, Sypyogyo and side ditches will also be restored for flood control; the completion of the restoration work will yield spaces, to provide close contact with water. The flowing water in Cheonggyecheon will be supplied by ground water, although sufficient water volume has not been ensured until today. Therefore, the plans are arranged to circulate water through pipes into Cheonggyecheon. Ultimately, Cheonggyecheon will become a symbol for improving environments around the entire Seoul city area, based on the restoration plans of ground water for supplying flowing water of Cheonggyecheon. I hope that the restoration of Cheonggyecheon will lead to the general revitalization of Seoul, as a city of environment, where people will be able to live in harmony with wind and water.
Ferry Berths of Waterfront in Osaka
Prof. Kinoshita gave a report on 8 ferry berths remain in the waterfront area of Osaka, from various viewpoints including historical backgrounds, purpose of use and actual way of using.
The delta area in the waterfront of Osaka city where several rivers still run through, presents the mixture of housing area which had been formed since Meiji period, and industrial area. The spatial structure consists of lined swathes of the following elements; housing area (inner city), industrial area/warehouses (waterfront) and a river, and again industrial area/warehouses and housing area. This composition contrasts with general spatial structure observed in other waterfront areas: a housing area near city center is gradually replaced with industrialized area, which is more closely-spaced where nearer to a waterfront.
The waterfront of Osaka has many inhabitants, while factories and warehouses are lined along river banks in the inner island with freighters shipping in. Therefore, huge bridges with tall girders were adopted to ensure both water and land transportation. For residents who have to move across rivers daily, it is difficult to walk or pedal across a bridge with such high girders. As a result, ferry berths are essential for them as transportation device for daily life even today. Moreover, the smooth terrain of waterfront is perfect for pedaling along. For the reasons as described above, many inhabitants use ferry berths with bicycles not only commuting, but also shopping and other everyday purposes. It can be said that the ferry berths are characterized as community road.
Generally, houses and industries coexist in the areas around "ferry berths along rivers"; factories and warehouses are seen along river banks, while housing areas exist near both sides of a ferry berth. The users of a ferry berth range within the sphere with the radius of 1 km of the berth, which may be appropriate for bicycles, and a wide group of people uses the berth for varieties of purposes. On the other hand, the areas around "ferry berth of port" are island shaped. Affected by specific character of each region, users and their purposes vary by berth, because such berths do not share a characteristic, as observed in a ferry berth along river.
The usages of 8 ferry berths are inspiring example for the future waterfront of Osaka. In these days, users of ferry berths have been slightly increasing once again. According to a field survey, some of them use these places as resting place or for walking around, though few in number. Ferry berths should be considered, not only as a mean of transportation to connect regions which provides close network among areas, but also a human-scale public space.
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