2005 International Symposium-Urban
Renovation in Asia I
Date: 8, Oct. 2005 (Sat) 13：00-17：00
Place: Large/medium meeting rooms, '80 Building, Ichigaya Campus of Hosei
"Renovation of Public Spaces in Historic
Center of Macau"
Engineer, Instituto Para Os Assuntos Civicos e Municipais, Macao
Francisco Vizeu Pinheiro
Macau has a long history of relationship with Portugal, as a meeting
point of western and eastern cultures and races, where the prosperity
and decline were repeatedly observed. This report focused on the following
１．Formation process of Macau as a trade city
２．Urban development and problems resulted from recent highly-dense
city and gambling business
３．Regeneration of squares and conservation of historic center
Macau had been a small fishing place for a few fishermen before Lusitanian
came to the place. In the period when Lusitanian began to reside, many
Chinese peoples including Indigenous Taiwanese and Hakka (KeJia) also
began to live in Macau. Macau is composed of a peninsula and two islands;
however in Ming and Qing dynasties, only the current peninsula area
was referred to as Macau. The maps of the peninsula in the 17th to
18th centuries show that a town came to existence along with irregular
city blocks based on the difference of elevation. However, the city
area was limited within a castle wall. Lusitanian built the city within
the wall, taking over various elements of Iberian Peninsula. Outside
of the castle wall, Chinese villages and paddle fields spread. On the
other hand, the city area within the wall was called a Christian City
with many churches. In the later periods, a Chinatown was formulated
along the inner bay within the wall. In the 19th and 20th centuries,
city blocks were found outside of the castle wall, and streets were
built both in the grid and the radial patterns in the old paddy fields
based on the city planning. The castle wall had been already destroyed
before that time. The city development conducted in 1914 lead to the
construction of Almeida Ribeiro（新馬路）street in the old city area within
the wall. The long history of mixture of Western and Eastern elements
affects Macau as we can see in western fa_ade and eastern room plans.
As described above, the old city of Macau was built by Lusitanian,
and the Chinatown was formed along the sea. The present city was built
through modernization processes such as urban planning and city development.
Macau is suffering from rapid increase of population. The reclamation
and high-rise buildings have provided the solution for the problem
until now; however, such urban developments put the pressure to the
narrow land, as well as to the conservation of the historic area. The
regalization of gambling business in the modern period, and tourists
for casino in recent years, are exacerbating traffic jam. As parking
lots are always insufficient, vehicles are parked in the square in
front of the church.
The historic center of Macau has been recently named to the UNESCO
list of world heritage. The renovation plan includes the solution to
various problems, and the planning for old streets lined with historic
buildings as gathering places. Although the Senado square along the
old street and St. Domingo square were once the place for the communication
such as gambling and commerce, they have been transformed into roadways
or parking areas in the modernization process. For renovation of the
square, waterworks were built so as to limit the area only for pedestrians
by blocking the vehicle traffic. In addition, sidewalks and roadways
were distinguished by cobbled with cobblestones (traditional Portuguese
stone). The renovation led to the 4-times increase of the land price
around the squares, bringing about good effects on the businesses.
It is worth noting that the appropriate use of 3Rs (Renewal, Rehabilitation
and Revival) according to each site is important, instead of simply
restoring the old condition.
The urban development such as reclamation is going on even today in
Macau. The waterfront area is experiencing a rush to build casinos
and hotels, including the project of complex building, designed by
Paul Andreu. On the other hand, it is important for us to recognize
the risks of such development, and seek to renovate the city based
on 3Rs. In addition, although the historic center is traditional residential
area of Western people, I expect the future renovation will combining
Western and Eastern elements.
"Historic and Natural Environments and
Urban Development-Examples from Hsinchu (新竹) Station of Taiwan
High Speed Rail and Settlements
Huang Jun Ming, Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Chung
Yuan Christian University
This report aims to clarify the conservation of farmland where land
belief has been strongly rooted, from the viewpoint of urban planning
relating Hsinchu Station of Taiwan High Speed Rail. LiuJia (六家) in
Hsinchu was originally a land of Taiwanese aborigine called the GaoSha
race (高砂族) until the 1730's, and was cultivated by Lin House (林家) of
Hakka; the settlements were conserved named to cultural property. Lin
House also cultivated farmlands, where buildings for worship ancestor
remain. The self-sufficient farmlands have been formulated in the rich
natural environment between rivers and mountains. These rich farmlands
were watered by Tau Qian Xi (頭前渓) river for which a dike had been built
The plan of Taiwan High Speed Rail proposed that in Hsinchu Station,
the railway would be built near the district of the residential area
for the people working in Silicon Valley, an important industrial area
in Taiwan. In 1998, a corporation established for the railway construction
concluded the contract with High Speed Rail Department of Taiwan government;
the construction was being realized based on plans including the ones
proposed by foreign planners.
Public facilities including a high speed rail, are typically built
in peripheral areas such as farmlands with low land price, rather than
existing urban areas. Therefore, LiuJia was selected because it was
appropriate from the viewpoint of land price. However, because LiuJia
was the farmland retaining the culture of Hakka, part of government
officials and researchers started a movement to conserve its natural
and historical landscape.
Farmers still cultivate the field beside the agricultural water, and
inherited know-how concerning agricultural water can be found all over
the town. However, it is regrettable that surplus clay from infrastructure
development was left in parks, and stone monuments for land worship
were stored in a place.
For the first place, specialists of landscape, architecture, ecology,
and media, and government officials gathered and discussed the way
to conserve historical landscape and natural environment. Then, workshops
were held among future and present inhabitants based on the traditional
settlement of Rinka in LiuJia district, aiming to obtain inhabitants'
participation and information concerning living experiences for town
As a basic policy, it is agreed that urban planning and landscape conservation
should be based on blue belt (river and irrigation water) and green
finger (forest). It is important to conserve historical architecture
and city with specialists of environment in conservation movement of
History and landscape of Shinchu are well retained by durable management
and control systems among inhabitant organizations, and local governments.
"Early-modern and Modern Periods in
Assistant Professor, Institute of Industrial Science, University
The lecture focused on pre-modern and modern periods of Vietnamese
cities, especially two major cities: center of northern Vietnam and
the capital, Hanoi, and the largest city in the country, Saigon.
Both have developed based on water culture as the core city of delta
areas; Hanoi developed around the Yellow River and Saigon around
the Mekong River. However in the colonial days of France, these cities
Hanoi had flourished as a capital of the dynasty until the 19th century.
The city developed using a Miyako(city) in China as a model, comparing
Chinese concept concerning soil, with water transportation in Vietnam.
After the colonial epoch, the grid plan typical in France was introduced
in the land with swamps still remained. In the next place, urban
structure in Hanoi will be analyzed focused on the streets in the
36th Street district. The French government developed the old city
core to improve sanitary conditions. This policy characterized the
flat Hang Bac Street with sidewalks, and gas lights, and with water
supply and sewerage systems underground. Before the colonial days,
the Hang Bac Street was organized around silver; guilds of silver
shops, ateliers, and money exchangers composed the Hang Bac Street
as a core.
When reading the Hang Bac Street by a boundary line, we can find
that the line was drawn in the center between the old streets. In
the colonial times, road plan was implemented onto the existing town
houses, causing the changes in boundary lines. In response to the
growth in value of new streets grows as a commercial space, the city
blocks also developed based on the formation of town houses along
the newly built streets.
On the other hand, Saigon has been gradually formed in contrast to
Hanoi. French engineer prepared grid and radial urban planning for
half a million inhabitants for Saigon. The formation of city blocks
is important for understanding the development process. The town
houses are lined side by side In the Chinatown, Cholon. There are
branches from alleys, and each alley separated the residence areas.
The similar structure with riron (里弄) house can be found. A riron
house is appropriate for horizontal development. Cholon is formed
as a complex of riron houses. It is considered that Chinese residents
and Vietnamese had large-scale landholdings following this system.
The urban renovation in Vietnam is in stage of development. Because
of the intricate land ownership, most part of city center remains
untouched. Large-scale development is realized in the suburban areas,
where traffic jam caused by bikes are serious. SEA GAME (Olympics
in SE asia) has been attracted and SEA GAME areas are planned, to
prime the suburban development. The vacant lot of the SEA GAME are
planned to be used as residential areas among the green belt. The
castle ruin in the city core lagged behind the development because
the site was military land; after the evacuation, National Assembly
building was planned. However, many monuments of the dynasty were
found in the empty lot. For their conservation by the archaeological
committee, the site has become designated as monumental park. Therefore
the National Assembly building was built in the suburban area.
On the other hand, similar horizontal development has been conducted
in the suburbs of Saigon. Because pre-modern commercial and logistical
networks are still working in the city core, town houses are still
utilized. Conservation project of those houses are under examination.
It is important to develop the area retaining the spatial characteristics
of the town houses.