Development with Modal Shift by Ship Transportation
Urban development Forum of Bicycles, Trams and Ships
Japan Acid Monitoring Network
To alleviate traffic pollution caused by automobiles, Tokyo is promoting
measures such as road pricing, and modal shift to decrease traffic
volume by replacing cars by other transportation means, as a part of
Transportation Demand Management (TDR). One of the options is ship
transportation. Through the history of ship transportation in Edo/Tokyo,
situations of river transportation as environmentally-friendly measure,
its possibilities and problems of urban development using ships will
When we look back at history of river transportation, in Tokyo Lowland
between the Shimosa Plateau and the Musashino Plateau, it can be assumed
that river transportation had already been used in the latter half
of tumulus (Kofun) period, because Boshu-ishi (tuff produced on Nokogiriyama
in Chiba) had been used for stone chamber of ancient tombs. In the
Edo period, agricultural products, fuelwood, coal, wood and soy source
from various regions would be transported to Edo, using river transportation
of Ayasegawa, Arakawa, Shingashigawa, Nakagawa, etc., and these products
were supporting livings of the million city. On the other hand, backloads
included not only commodities and marine products, but also ash and
human waste; waste materials were recycled as valuable resources to
each production area. In this way, river transportation maintained
recycling-oriented society. After that time, ship transportation has
undergone various changes, and gradually declined in the postwar era.
Currently, river is used mainly by petrol transportation, as well as
cleaning business and passenger traffic. Furthermore, the importance
of ship transportation in logistics is being reevaluated through the
experience of the January 17 Great Hanshin Earthquake, from the viewpoint
of urban disaster prevention.
The Guideline for Construction Material Recycling" by Metropolis
of Tokyo (Nov. 2000), proposes modal shift towards multiple transportation
measures including ships and railways for construction by-products,
both by public and private projects, from the viewpoints of environmental
protection and cost reduction.
On the other hand, there are some constraints on ship transportation;
e.g., the bridge beam with insufficient height in Arakawa and the Sumida
River, river structure, and river law. The river law and river structure
lays it down that fixed objects shall not be constructed within a river
area. In addition, occupancy of river area is to be noted. Old factories
based on river usage, located on riverfronts are decreasing because
the above limitations prevent them from expanding. Actually, Tokyo
as river administrator and Ministry of Land do not share the same position
regarding this problem.
Based on the above-mentioned viewpoints, following tasks for ship transportation
can be sorted out :
1）River maintenance for ship transportation
2）Harmony with urban environment
3）Practical application of ship transportation without air pollution
4）Promotion of regional industries for ship transportation
5）Introduction of social and economic attraction measures
I made propositions regarding these points.
Development based on Modal Shift Required by Citizens"
Urban Development Forum of Bicycles, Trams and Ships
Japan Acid Monitoring Network
Recent global warming requires global-scale responses, and technical
improvement of automobiles as well as modal shift to alternative transportation
measures, are increasingly drawing attention. From the standpoint of
a citizen, I will show necessities and possibilities of the modal shift,
including its background, concept and positions. The efforts for shipping
substitution plan, in factory construction of a newspaper printing
company along the Sumida River will also be introduced. Furthermore,
future directions will be suggested.
Horifune in Kita-ku, has developed based on transportation on the Sumida
River during the Meiji, Taisho and Showa (pre-war) period; however,
it has become quiet residential block in the post-war era along with
the decline of ship transportation. The construction of printing factory
of Yomiuri Shimbun was planned in this area along the river, which
raised concerns of inhabitants about pollutions; they cooperated with
Japan Acid Monitoring Network and started major field surveys from
December 2001. The main issue was engine noise of trucks in the middle
of the night because the peak of newspaper shipping is 12:00AM to 1:00AM.
To solve the issue, logistics test for roll printing paper was conducted;
49 11-ton truck and a 180-ton ship were used for comparing land transportation
and ship transportation on the Sumida. Velocity, fuel, amount of consumption,
volume of carbon dioxide emissions, cost and impact on livelihood,
etc., were checked. Based on the survey, we proposed alternative shipping
system as "Another Environment Impact Assessment" by citizens,
to Metropolis of Tokyo, including quantitative analysis of the benefit
of ship transportation.
In the process of the survey, we brought 3,637 applicants of pollution
mediation in Tokyo together. We went through various difficulties such
as the gap in position between the nation and municipalities, communicating
recognition of the problem to people other than involved parties, etc.
Most of the civil groups in the metropolitan area are working to protect
rivers, water quality or natural surroundings; e.g., "Citizens
Exchange Committee Office for Sumida River" proposes to revive
icefish in the Sumida River. Therefore, modal shift (logistics and
ship transportation) has been rarely defined in civic action of Japan.
Our members participated in "The 3rd World Water Forum" as
committee members for the "land and water transportation" subsection
committee within the "river and transportation" section.
The common themes proposed by participants from various countries were:
advantages of ship transportation (energy saving, disaster prevention,
waterfront environment and modal shift) and its impediments (cost,
lack of knowledge and port facilities, insufficiently developed river
channel, and link between ship and land transportation).
In recent years, the Project for the Cheonggyecheon River of Seoul
(Korea) is gathering worldwide attention, which aimed to demolish the
expressway for restoring urban river. In Japan, the movement for restoring
ship transportation has become gradually apparent; the construction
of St. Luke's Tower surrounded by the sea, and ship transportation
in the west exit redevelopment of Kita-Senju Station are worth noting.